Dental Handpiece is the instrument used to ground various parts of the tooth at high speed. Dental handpiece could be air or electrically driven. The main purpose of these pieces is to restore, contour, clean or polish a tooth by using disks, cups, or burs.
Uses of Dental Handpieces:
1. Dental handpiece aids in removing the tooth.
2. It also helps in shaping the tooth before the application of any dental procedure on it.
3. This handpiece can be helpful in cleaning & shaping the root canals.
4. Restorative materials can be polished by using dental handpiece.
5. Old & temporary tooth fillings or crowns could also be removed with them.
Types of Dental Handpieces:
There are various types of dental handpieces by speed and design which are as follows:
On the Basis of Speed:
By speed, dental handpieces can be classified into two major types:
1. High-Speed Dental Handpiece- A handpiece that can rotate at the speed of about 100,000 to 800,000 rpm is known as the high-speed dental handpiece. High Speed or ultra-speed handpiece functions with the help of a water spray having a fiber-optic light fit which aids in better visibility of tooth. Burrs are usually used in these dental handpieces. The sole purpose of the presence of water spray is to minimize the temperature of the handpiece.
2. Low-Speed Dental Handpiece- These handpieces operate on the inbuilt motor at the speed of about 6,000 to 10,000 rpm. They are used for finishing up dental procedures and polish tooth.
High Speed vs Low-Speed Handpieces
1. Low-speed handpieces require less speed to rotate than high-speed handpieces.
2. They are less costly than high-speed handpieces.
3. High-speed handpieces are more powerful than the low-speed handpiece.
4. The life span of low-speed hand pieces is greater than the high-speed hand pieces.
On the Basis of Design
When it comes to design, there are two major types of a dental handpiece.
1. Electric Handpiece- Electric handpieces are comprised of an electric motor which drives the handpiece. The rotation speed of these handpieces is 300,000 to 350,000 rpm. However, when under load, their rotation speed may reduce to 180,000 to 200,000 rpm.
2. Air-Driven Handpiece- These handpieces operate on the air-driven turbine. They are mainly called as the turbines due to the high speed of these handpieces. The motion of these handpieces is rotational.
Electric vs. Air-Driven handpieces
1. Electric handpieces are a low-pitch sound producing instruments than air-driven handpieces.
2. The air-driven handpieces are safer to use as Electric handpieces may cause inflamed gums and mouth burns.
3. Although electric handpieces are efficient but they are more expensive than air-driven handpieces.
4. During dental procedure through air-driven handpieces a lot amount of power is lost whereas, through electric handpieces, no power is lost.